Acne is a common condition that causes blocked pores, pimples, cysts and other lesions on the skin. While it is most common in teenagers, acne can affect people of all ages, most often appearing on the face, neck, chest, back, shoulders and upper arms.
Acne scarring is most often caused by larger acne lesions, such as cysts or nodules, which can swell and rupture, causing a break in the wall of the individual pore. Infected material from the inflamed lesion can spill out through this break and can affect the nearby healthy tissue, leading to the appearance of a scar. Although not harmful, most people are bothered by the unattractive appearance of these scars and seek treatment to remove or significantly reduce their appearance.
Treatment of acne scars depends on the type and severity of scarring, as well as each patient's individual skin and amount of correction desired. Your doctor will develop a personalized treatment plan for you. For many patients, a combination of treatments may be most effective in improving the appearance of acne scars. Treating acne scars is often a complex process that involves trial and error of treatments.
The most effective way to prevent acne scars from developing is to stop the lesions that lead to scarring. It is also important for patients to avoid picking or popping active lesions, as this can lead to infection and increase the risk of scarring. Picking at scabs should also be avoided to allow uninterrupted natural healing to occur. Sun exposure can lead to further skin damage and may delay healing of scars and lesions, and should be avoided as much as possible to maintain the health of the skin.
Blepharoplasty (Eyelid Surgery)
Your face projects an image about who you are and what you think and feel. Just as a great work of art may eventually show signs of aging, your facial features also undergo similar gradual changes over the years. The eyes make up a large part of human expression. Few features add more years to a face than saggy eyelids. Drooping of the eyelid skin gives a tired, aged appearance to an otherwise attractive face.
This common problem is caused by the relaxation of the skin and connective tissue surrounding the eyes. Fat that is normally found near the eye expands forward into the tissue beneath the eyelids. This excessive, protruding fat causes pouches or “bags” of the eyelids. Frequently, the thin skin of the upper eyelids may sag to a point of obstructing your vision. Patients comment that they feel they must “hold their eyelid up” in order to see better. Women state that they have difficulty in applying makeup due to the excessive folds of skin in the upper eyelids.
Many factors may contribute to loose skin and fat pads of the eyelids. There may be a hereditary predisposition, or perhaps there are other contributing factors. Whatever the cause, the result is the same—baggy eyelids and fat pads that are depressing to look at in the mirror everyday and that makes you look tired and older than you are.
Eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) is one of the most satisfying forms of cosmetic surgery. By removing the excess skin and fat from the upper and/or lower eyelids, this procedure can restore a brighter, more youthful and less-tired appearance and can even help correct obstructed vision if caused by eyelid skin hanging on the eyelashes.
The outpatient procedure is performed under local anesthesia and mild sedation.
For upper eyelid blepharoplasty, an incision is made in the fold of the upper eyelid. An ellipse of skin and the excess fat is removed. The incision is then closed with fine stitches.
For lower eyelid blepharoplasty, an incision is made just behind the inside of the eyelid. With this incision, the fat pad and “bulges” are removed and the skin contours and shrinks back in a smoother fashion. No sutures are required as that incision heals on its own and no scar is visible on the outside or the eyelid.
After blepharoplasty, an ointment is placed in the eye and on the healing skin. Sutures remain in place for 3-6 days or may dissolve spontaneously. Some bruising and swelling is a normal postoperative reaction but may be camouflaged by the use of makeup in 7-10 days. Patients may return to normal activities in several days.